Radio Frequency Fingerprint (RFF) Identification

All the components of wireless devices will have slightly different features, e.g., carrier frequency of the oscillators, from the manufacturing processing. Similar to biometric fingerprint, these characteristics are unique and permanent, which can act as the fingerprint of the devices. This technique first requires collecting the device fingerprint and storing them in a database, and then classifies devices by comparing with the stored database whenever a device wishes to join the network.